Essay on Respiration of Sugars by Yeast
1501 WordsOct 29th, 20107 Pages
Respiration of Sugars by Yeast
1. PROBLEM STATEMENT:
What is the effect of the type of sugar on the amount of carbon dioxide released by Yeast during aerobic respiration?
If the type of sugar is changed, the amount of carbon dioxide created will then increase because sugar is needed to for respiration so occur. If Fructose is added to the Yeast it will then respire the most Co2 because fructose is the largest sugar, its like using a hundred dollar bill instead of single dollars.
3. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
A. Background Information (:
Yeast are able to metabolize some foods, but not others. In order for an organism to make use of a potential source of food, it must be capable of transporting the food into its…show more content…
If it does not, continue with this step to set up your sensor manually.
On the Main screen, tap .
Tap to select Channel 1.
Press the Scroll buttons on the handheld to scroll through the list of sensors.
Choose CO2 GAS (PPM) from the sensor menu.
Tap to return to the Main screen.
10. When incubation is finished, use a beral pipet to place 2 mL of the sugar/yeast solution into the 250 mL respiration chamber.
11. Place the shaft of the CO2 Gas Sensor in the opening of the respiration chamber. Gently twist the stopper on the shaft of the CO2 Gas Sensor into the chamber opening. Do not twist the shaft of the CO2 Gas Sensor or you may damage it.
12. Wait one minute for readings to stabilize, then tap to begin data collection. Data will be collected for 5 minutes.
13. When data collection has finished, a graph of carbon dioxide gas vs. time will be displayed.
14. Remove the CO2 Gas Sensor from the respiration chamber.
15. Fill the respiration chamber with water and then empty it. Make sure that all yeast have been removed from the respiration chamber. Thoroughly dry the inside of the respiration chamber with a paper towel.
16. Use a notebook or notepad to fan air across the openings in the probe shaft of the CO2 Gas Sensor for 1 minute.
17. Perform a linear regression to calculate the rate of respiration.
On the Graph screen, tap , then tap
Respiration is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose. Respiration takes place in every living cell, all of the time and all cells need to respire in order to produce the energy that they require.
What is the energy used for?
The energy produced during respiration is used in many different ways, some examples of what it is used for are:
- Working your muscles
- Growth and repair of cells
- Building larger molecules from smaller ones i.e. proteins from amino acids
- Allowing chemical reactions to take place
- Absorbing molecules in active transport
- Keeping your body temperature constant
- Sending messages along nerves
Types of Respiration
There are two main types of respiration, aerobic and anaerobic we will look at each one of these in detail now.
1. Aerobic Respiration
Aerobic means “with air”. This type of respiration needs oxygen for it to occur so it is called aerobic respiration. The word equation for aerobic respiration is:
The chemical equation is:
It is important that you learn both the word and chemical equation.
In the above equations we see that glucose is broken down by oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water being produced as by-products of the reaction. Approximately 2900 kJ of energy is released when one mole of glucose is broken down. The released energy is used to make a special energy molecule called Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is where the energy is stored for use later on by the body.
Aerobic respiration occurs in plants as well as animals. Oxygen enters plant cells through the stomata. Plants produce their food via photosynthesis and release energy from it through the process of respiration. Below is a reminder of what the equation for photosynthesis is:
(Energy via sunlight)
Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen
Comparing the two equations we can see that aerobic respiration works in the opposite way to photosynthesis. During the day both photosynthesis and respiration are taking place at the same time, though photosynthesis is occurring at a faster rate. At night when there is no light only respiration takes place.
2. Anaerobic Respiration
Anaerobic means without air (“an” means without). Sometimes there is not enough oxygen around for animals and plants to respire, but they still need energy to survive. Instead they carry out respiration in the absence of oxygen to produce the energy they require this is called anaerobic respiration.
a) In animals
Our muscles need oxygen and glucose to respire aerobically and produce the energy they require, these are carried to the muscle via the blood. However if we were to carry out vigorous exercise our heart and lungs would not be able to get sufficient oxygen to our muscles in order for them to respire. In this case muscles carry out anaerobic respiration. The word and chemical equation for anaerobic respiration in is:
Glucose Lactic acid + Energy
C6H12O6 2C3H6O3 + 120 kJ/mol
As you can see anaerobic respiration is not as efficient as aerobic and only a small amount of energy is released. This is because glucose can only be partially broken down. As well as this inefficiency a poisonous chemical, lactic acid is also produced, if this builds up in the body it stops the muscles from working and causes a cramp. To rid the body of lactic acid oxygen is needed, the amount of oxygen required to break down the lactic acid is referred to as the oxygen debt.
b) In Plants
The oxygen supply to plants can also run out, this happens for example if the soil gets waterlogged. In this case they have to obtain their energy via anaerobic respiration. Below is the word and chemical equation for anaerobic respiration in plants:
Glucose Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + Energy
C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + Energy
When the above reaction occurs in yeast cells it is referred to as fermentation. Fermentation is the process used for baking bread and brewing alcohol.