Trudeau’s Overreaction To The October Crisis In Quebec
Throughout history, the actions of governments have always been debated; however, occasionally there are certain events which spark much controversy, both at the time of the event and by historians today. One of these controversial acts was the invocation of the War Measures Act in 1970, an act which suspended the civil liberties of Canadian citizens. In October 1970, in what became known as the October Crisis, the Front de libération du Québec, (commonly known as the FLQ) which was a French Canadian organization advocating independence from Canada, kidnapped two politicians. This initiated a series of events, one of which was the invocation of the War Measures Act by Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau. Many historians argue that Trudeau was justified in invoking the War Measures Act because the October Crisis ended shortly after the Act was invoked. However, this argument is invalid as justification; primarily because the War Measures Act was an extreme overreaction by Trudeau, as the threat of the FLQ was largely small-scale, and the demise of the FLQ was impending with the rise of the Bloc Quebecois. Furthermore, the Act may have inspired Quebecers who favoured separatism, as they saw the government desperately employ the most extreme measure to stop the FLQ. Finally, the War Measures Act suspended the civil rights of citizens within a democracy, violating the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
The Front de libération du Québec was founded in 1963 during the “Quiet Revolution”, and for seven years, they carried out several minor bombings, with few FLQ members involved in each of the bombings, as they were relatively small scale. However, the Canadian government took little notice of these actions until October 5th, 1970 when British Trade Commissioner James Cross was kidnapped by two members of the FLQ. Their demands for his return were simple, 500 000 in gold, the release of 23 FLQ prisoners, the broadcast and publication of the FLQ manifesto, and an aircraft to safely take the kidnappers to Cuba were the most significant. However, both Prime Minister Trudeau and Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa were not willing to give into the FLQ demands, External Affairs Minister Mitchell Sharp even claimed the demands to be “wholly unreasonable,” despite the fact the life of a prominent politician was at stake. On October 10th 1970, Bourassa finally comes back to Quebec from his a trip in New York, which he deemed as more significant than the crisis in Quebec. Later that evening, two FLQ members kidnapped Pierre Laporte, the Quebec Minister of Labour. Five days later after still refusing to meet the FLQ demands, Trudeau calls upon the War Measures Act. Under the regulations of the Act, which dated back to World War One, Trudeau’s government suspended the civil liberties of Canadian citizens, and were able to arrest and detain anyone suspected of belonging to the FLQ, or even supporting the FLQ. The body of Pierre Laporte...
Loading: Checking Spelling0%
Solutions to the Foreclosure Crisis in Cleveland1572 words - 6 pages Cleveland, Ohio faces a vacant property crisis. Steady abandonment of vacant properties, both residential and commercial, has diminished stability, property values, and public safety in the city of Cleveland and its neighboring suburbs. This multi-faceted problem of mortgage loan delinquency and bank walk-aways in Cleveland has generated an extensive legal discussion concerning pressing public policy matters. The foreclosure crisis in Cleveland...
"October Sky" and "Catcher in the Rye": Coming of Age3350 words - 13 pages When examining the topic of coming-of-age in literature, two books that stand out may include The Catcher in the Rye written by J.D. Salinger and Rocket Boys, or recently named,
Why were the Bolsheviks successful in Russia, October 1917?827 words - 3 pages The old Russian society was a brutal capitalist society, headed by a king called the Tsar. The country was controlled by wealthy capitalists allied with big landowners, who supported the Tsar and exploited the peasants and workers. Poverty, brutal exploitation in the factories, hunger and constant war created a strong revolutionary mood among the working class. The Provisional Government was opposed by the soviets, or councils of workers and...
If Canadian Government spent more time helping the country become bilingual, The October Crisis would never had happened.1418 words - 6 pages Québec's unique culture can only be found within the province's geographical boundaries; Champlain founded these in 1608, precisely four centuries ago. This long routed heritage is culturally symbolic and important to Québécois. Proof of this can be viewed all over the province with the Fleurdelisé, their official flag, flown high. Canada's government has failed repeatedly in respecting their French heritage. The...
Should Quebec (or other provinces) separate from Canada in order to best protect its constitutional rights?567 words - 2 pages Question: Should Quebec (or other provinces) separate from Canada in order to best protect its constitutional rights?In my opinion, all provinces in Canada, including Quebec should not separate. Quebec has been one of the provinces of Canada for a long period of time. Most people in the world view that it is one of...
Should Quebec (or Other Provinces) Separate From Canada In Order To Be512 words - 2 pages Should Quebec (or other provinces) Separate From Canada In Order To Best Protect Its Constitutional Rights? In my opinion, all provinces in Canada, including Quebec should not separate. Quebec has been one of the provinces of Canada for a long period of time. Most people in the world view that it is one of the component in Canada. French-Canadian and English-Canadian seem to live together peacefully without conflict, even many people with...
The History of the Quebec Francophones and the Attempts Made to Accommodate Their Concerns2150 words - 9 pages The History of the Quebec Francophones and the Attempts Made to Accommodate Their Concerns The merging of two separate and distinct groups is what has given Canada its unique cultural identity. While some early politicians believed assimilation was the best approach to building a strong Canada, it became increasing difficult to convince the Quebec francophones that a national identity should take precedence over retaining their unique...
The Russian Revolution: To what extent was powerful revolutionary leadership and clear revolutionary ideas the reason for the successful Bolshevik revolution in October 1917?1703 words - 7 pages The powerful leadership and ideas of the Bolshevik party were the foundation that helped them to successfully achieve the 1917 Russian Revolution. The Revolution remained in Russia because the ideology was aimed at the demands of the Russian workers and peasants. There was also a void in the government that needed to be filled and this made Russian...
Proposed Solutions to the Foreclosure Crisis in America1815 words - 7 pages Foreclosure, the process of claiming the defaulted property to cover the cost of an unpaid debt, has hit America like a tidal wave. Considered to be a crisis and a major factor in the poor economic situation of today, there is no doubt that the current state of the housing market and the influx in foreclosures across the nation has had a dire impact on the American economy since the beginning of 2007. Strategies, policies, action plans, and all...
How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis in America1989 words - 8 pages The foreclosure crisis in America can only be resolved by every American citizen working together to build a stronger America by changing the way we make decisions for expenditures in our lives. We must stop overextending ourselves beyond our economic means. The foreclosure crisis of America has been caused by Americans borrowing money to purchase a home that they cannot afford. Lending agencies have allowed Americans to borrow more money to...
The Growing Tension and Debate over Bill 94 in Quebec, Canada1525 words - 6 pages Over the last several decades there has been an increase in the number of Muslim immigrants to Canada. The continued growth within the Canadian Muslim population has caused tensions to arisen regarding the accommodation of Islamic practices and beliefs. Quebec specifically has become a topic of discussion due to the recent possibility of legislating Bill 94. In 2010 Justice Minister Kathleen Weil introduced Bill 94, original called “An Act to...
The October Crisis is the name given to a series of events centred around the kidnapping of two government officials by the Quebec separatist group the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) in Montreal during October 1970. Often viewed as a culmination of a campaign of bombings carried out by the FLQ over the previous seven years, the October Crisis escalated quickly resulting in the deployment of soldiers throughout the province and the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act in Canadian history.
The October Crisis is also notable for the affect it had upon public opinion, shifting separatist sentiment away from violent action and toward political campaigning as a means of achieving independence for Quebec.
The FLQ and the Quiet Revolution
As Canada’s second most populous province, Quebec’s unique history produced a powerful cultural division within the federation of Canada. Quebecers of predominantly catholic, francophone descent viewed themselves quite separately from the rest of the country’s mainly protestant, anglophone population.
On 10 September 1960, a group of influential Quebecer activists founded the Rally for National Independence (Rassemblement pour l’Indépendance Nationale or RIN) beginning a movement that would come to be known as the Quiet Revolution. During the 1960s and 1970s the Quiet Revolution saw a huge shift in social and economic power in Quebec and a surge in separatist thinking amongst the general population.
Against this background the FLQ (also known in English as the Quebec Liberation Front) was formed in 1963 as a Marxist-Leninist paramilitary group advocating the separation of the province of Quebec from the rest of Canada. Composed of recruits from various backgrounds, the FLQ had numerous cells throughout Quebec with some members even receiving training in guerilla warfare from sympathetic bodies abroad.
In 1966 the FLQ published a document titled Revolutionary Strategy and the Role of the Avant-Garde which outlined the group’s tactics including bombings and kidnappings. This belief in violence as the catalyst for change led to the FLQ being viewed as a terrorist organisation by the Canadian government and most other world governments. Between 1963 and 1970 the FLQ was responsible for 160 violent incidents claiming the lives of eight people and injuring many more.
The October Crisis
Flag of the FLQ
By 1970 the FLQ had claimed responsibility for over 90 bombings including that of the Montreal Stock Exchange on 13 February 1969 in which twenty seven people were hurt. With nearly two dozen of its members imprisoned, the FLQ launched a series of failed kidnap attempts against the Israeli and US consuls with the aim of forcing the Canadian government to negotiate for FLQ members’ release. On Monday 5 October 1970 a third kidnap attempt proved successful when British Trade Commissioner, James Cross, was abducted from his home in Montreal by two individuals posing as deliverymen. The October Crisis had begun.
Following Cross’s abduction, a ransom note was delivered to the authorities demanding the exchange of James Cross (pictured) for a number of political prisoners and the broadcast of the FLQ manifesto by all media outlets in Quebec. As the emergency services worked to locate Cross, the Premier of Quebec, Robert Bourassa, opened negotiations with the FLQ.
On 8 October, three days after the kidnapping, Bourassa arranged for the FLQ manifesto to be broadcast across Quebec in both French and English in a bid to buy time. Despite this gesture, on Saturday 10 October, with negotiations still under way, further FLQ members abducted Minister of Labour for the province of Quebec, Pierre Laporte while he played football with his nephew on his front lawn.
Alarmed by the second abduction, the federal Canadian government ordered the army to patrol the Ottawa region on the border of Quebec on 12 October. Although this move was intended to strengthen the government’s position and reassure the population, Wednesday 14 October saw increased calls from within Quebec to release ‘political prisoners’ in exchange for Cross and Laporte.
On 15 October, with negotiations at an impasse, Robert Bourassa made an official request to the federal government for the assistance of the army with the police investigation. That same day 3,000 students rallied to show their support for the FLQ; and union leader, Michael Chartrand, made a statement in which he claimed public support for the organisation was rising and that they would win because ultimately ‘there are more boys willing to shoot members of parliament than there are policemen’.
Fearing such bold statements were the prelude to outright insurrection, Premier Bourassa requested that Canadian Prime Minister Pierre-Eliott Trudeau (pictured), grant the government of Quebec ’emergency powers’. At 4:00am on Friday 16 October, Prime Minister Trudeau appeared in a broadcast announcing the enforcement of the War Measures Act, a statute first adopted during the First World War which allowed the Canadian government to use military means to ensure law and order during war or civil unrest.
Following the broadcast, the army was ordered to occupy several cities in Quebec and the powers of the police and military to apprehend individuals were extended resulting in almost 500 arrests. The following day, Pierre Laporte was executed by his captors.
The War Measures Act and the end of the Crisis
Following Laporte’s execution, the FLQ members holding Cross made a public statement declaring their intention to kill him if they were discovered by the ‘fascist police’ and altering their demands. In addition to the publication of the FLQ manifesto and the release of all twenty three FLQ members currently in prison, they now demanded safe passage to Cuba or Algeria along with a ‘voluntary tax’ of half a million dollars.
As talks continued, criticism of the use of the War Measures Act began to grow, with Quebecers denouncing the military presence and curtailment of their civil liberties. Nonetheless, the tactics appeared to bear fruit when, on 6 November, police raided the hiding place of a number of FLQ members believed to be responsible for the kidnapping and murder of Pierre Laporte, making an arrest.
After several weeks of armed presence in Quebec, the October Crisis finally came to an end on Friday 4 December 1970 when talks between the Canadian government, the government of Quebec and the FLQ reached a conclusion. In the Canada Pavilion on Île Notre-Dame, Montreal, the site of the 1967 International Exposition which was temporarily made Cuban territory for the duration of the talks, it was agreed that James Cross would be released and that the five kidnappers would be granted safe passage to Cuba aboard a Canadian Air Force plane. At the time of Cross’s release he had been in captivity for sixty days.
Following the release of James Cross, the pressure on the government began to decrease. On 23 December, Prime Minister Trudeau announced the wind-down of the military presence in Quebec with the aim of removing all troops by 5 January 1971. The hunt for FLQ members continued however and on 28 December three more member of the cell responsible for the kidnapping and murder of Minister Laporte were arrested and charged.
The legacy of the October Crisis and criticism of the War Measures Act
The October Crisis was a unique event in Canadian history and continues to provoke a strong reaction in the country and the province of Quebec in particular. When the War Measures Act was implemented on 16 October, Prime Minister Trudeau was acting within his power as head of the Canadian government and at the specific request of the Premier of Quebec. Furthermore, polls conducted at the time indicated that the overwhelming majority of both English and French-speaking Canadians and Quebecers supported the use of the War Measures Act in protection of the public.
Nonetheless, the sight of troops, tanks and armoured vehicles on city streets gave the impression of martial law in the province and proved highly disconcerting to many Quebecers and the Canadian public at large. Critics of the use of the War Measures Act argued that Trudeau’s response to the October Crisis was excessive, even dangerous, and that granting police the power to arrest and detain individuals without warrants constituted a serious violation of Quebecers’ civil liberties.
The majority of the people arrested during the October Crisis were later released, but those who claimed the FLQ was essentially an amateur organisation accused the government of overestimating the threat posed by the terrorist group. This criticism finds modern parallels with the handling of terrorist threats and attacks today, such as the police and local government response to the Boston Marathon bombing of 2013.
To many supporters of Québécoisnationalism, the abduction of a foreign diplomat and the murder of a government minister represented a dangerous escalation in the activities of violent separatist groups and the focus began to shift back toward political means of achieving independence for Quebec. In 1968 the RIN had dissolved and many of its members joined the new Parti Québécois, which won the right to form a provincial government in 1976. Over the following decades, support for Québécois sovereignty has waxed and waned but the events of the October Crisis remain an important if disturbing chapter in the history of Canada and its largest province.
In 2010, forty years after his abduction, former diplomat James Cross agreed to be interviewed by the CBC to talk about his abduction at the hands of the FLQ. A recording of the conversation is included in the CBC online digital archive here.
Liam A. Faulkner
Liam is the author of Ancient Medicine: Sickness and Health in Greece and Rome, published by Collca.