Free sample essay on India’s Space Programme. India is fast progressing in the field of space research. It is emerging as a big name in this field. The country is now capable of launching its own spacecraft. In fact, it offers this service to many other countries. Now India has made landmark progress with the launch of Chandrayan for its moon mission.
India started its space programme with the launch of first space satellite ‘Aryabhatta’ on April 19, 1975. This space satellite was named after the great Indian astronomer and mathematician of the 5th century, Aryabhatta. It was launched from a soviet cosmodrome with the help of a Soviet rocket. It marked India’s giant leap and made her the eleventh country to join the space club.
The second satellite ‘Bhaskara’ was launched on June 7, 1979. It was also launched from a Soviet cosmodrome. It was named after two eminent personalities—Bhaskara I and Bhaskara II. It was followed by ‘Rohini’. It was the first Indian satellite put into the space by SLV-III, an Indian rocket. It was launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh on July 9, 1980. It was developed by the scientists of ISRO. It was the success of the mission of SLV-III which brought recognition to the space programme of India.
India’s fourth satellite Rohini II was launched by the launch vehicle SLV-III from Sriharikota on May 31, 1981. It was designed to provide useful data for 300 days. It was weighted 38 kg. It was known as India’s first development rocket flight. Unfortunately, it burnt in space on June 8, 1981, without completing its mission. Bhaskara II, India’s fifth satellite in space, was launched on November 20, 1981 from Soviet cosmodrome Volgograd. It was the earth observation satellite. It was a milestone in the space journey of India as it brought to India the honour of being a space nation.
Image Source: static.guim.co.uk
Apple, an experimental geostationary communication satellite, was launched on June 19, 1981. It was launched with French coordination. With this, India entered the domestic satellite communication era. India launched INSAT-1A on April 10, 1982. India joined the select group of technically advanced countries. But this mission failed on September 6, 1982.
In April 1983, India successfully launched Rohini satellite (RS-D-2). It marked the opening of new horizons for India. India’s ninth satellite INSAT-1B became fully operational in October 1983. It was the world’s first geo-stationary satellite combining services like telecommunication, mass communication and meteorological. It was launched in August 1983 from US Space Shuttle Challenger.
India’s space programme is primarily driven by the vision of great scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. He is considered as the Father of Indian Space Programme. The main objective of India’s space programme has been to promote the development of application of Space Science and technology for socio-economic benefits of the country.
The launching of Chandrayan I in 2008 marked a milestone in the history of space technology of India. Chandrayan will orbit around the earth for two years. During the period, it will send data to scientists. The scientists with the help of the data will study various aspects of moon, and will prepare a map of the moon. The map will further help in the study of moon.
Then onward India made successive progress in the field of space research. It launched INSAT series satellite which made India’s position stronger in the comity of nation. India has now become self-reliant in terms of launching vehicles and telecommunications. Now India offers telecommunication services to other countries. The launching of satellites like IRS’s, ASLV’s, PSLV’s have placed India in the exclusive club of four nations—USA, Russia, France and Israel. Captain Rakesh Sharma was the first astronaut of India. Now the country enjoys a respectful position in the countries of the world.
The Indian space program began in 1962. In 1969 the Indian space Research Organization (ISRO) was set up and headquartered in Bangalore (presently Bengaluru) for the purpose of rapid development of space technology and its application. In 1972, space commission was established. In 1975, India launched its first satellite, Aryabhata, and thus entered the space age. Over the last four and half decades, the Indian space programme has made impressive progress through a well integrated, self:reliant programme.
Indian Space Research Organization
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), set up at Ahmadabad in 1969 by Prof. Vikram Sarabhai as chairman, is the apex body to provide guidelines, formulate policies and monitor implementation of the national space policy.
Objectives of ISRO
Directed towards, self reliant use of space technology for national development with the main thrust on:
I. Mass communication and education via satellite.
II. Survey and management of natural resources through remote sensing technology, environmental monitoring and meteorological forecasting.
III. Development of indigenous satellites and satellite launch vehicles.
Organizational Structure of the ISRO
Other Space Research Organizations
I. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC): VSSC at Thiruvananhapuram is the head centre for the development of satellite launch vehicles and associated technology.
II. ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC): ISAC at Bangalore is the lead center for developing satellite technology and implementation of satellite system for scientific technological and applications missions.
III. Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR: SDSC SHAR is the main launch centre of ISRO and has facilities for solid propellant casting, static testing of solid motors, launch vehicles integration and launch operations, range operation comprising telemetry tracking and command network and mission control centre.
IV. Liquid Propulsion System Centre (LPSC): LPSC is the lead centre in development of liquid and cryogenic propulsion for launch vehicles and satellites.
V. Space Applications Centre (SAC): SAC at Ahmadabad is engaged in the development of pay loads for communication, meteorological and remote sensing satellites.
VI. Development and Educational Communication: Unit (DECU): DECU at Ahmadabad is involved in the conception, definition, planning, implementation and socio:economic evaluation of innovative configuration for space applications.
Chandrayan I: India's First Lunar Probe
VII ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command: Network (ISTRAC): ISTRAC provides mission support to low:earth orbit satellites as well as launch vehicle missions.
VIII. Master Control Facility: MCF at Hassan in Karnataka and Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh monitors and controls all the geo:stationary satellites of ISRO.
IX. ISRO inertial system Unit (IISU): IISU at Thiruvanathpuram carries out resource and development in inertial sensors and systems.
X. National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) : NRSA at Hyderabad is an autonomous institution under DOS. The agency is responsible for satellite data acquisition and processing data dissemination, aerial remote sensing and decision support for disaster management.
XI. Physical Research Laboratory (PRL): PRL at Ahmadabad, is an autonomous institution supported mainly by DOS. It is premier institute for multi:disciplinary research in astronomy and astrophysics, earth sciences, planetary sciences, space sciences and basic science.
Types of Satellites Launched by ISRO
XII. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL): NARL at Gadanki near Tirupati is an autonomous society supported by DOS. It is a premier centre for atmospheric research facilities like Mesosphere, Stratosphere troposphere radar, LIDAR etc.
XIII. Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres – (PRSSC) – Five PRSSCs have been established by the DOS at Bangalore, Jodhpur, Kharagpur, Dehradun and Nagpur. PRSSCs support the various remote sensing tasks specific to their regions as well as at the national level.
XIV. North Eastern – Space Application Centre (NE SAC): NE-SAC, located at Shillong, is a joint initiatives of DOS and North Eastern Council to provide development support to the North Eastern region using space science and technology.
XV. Antrix Corporation Limited – The Antrix Corporation Limited, Bangalore is the apex marketing agency under DOS with access to resources of DOS as well as Indian space industries.
XVI. Semi:Conductor Laboratory (SCL): SCL is entrusted with design and development of very large scale integration ( VLSI) devices and development of systems for telecommunications and space sectors.
Milestones in Indian Space Programmes