Business Law Class Assignments For Criminology

Criminology assignment revolves around the concept of crime in respect of society. In a society, each and every person has certain rights to exercise and certain duties to perform. Every person is expected to respect each other's rights and follow the social norms of the society that is to live and let live. However, quite often, we find that human deviate from such ideologies and incur anti-social attitudes. Thus, these situations make the State take mandatory steps for the protection of the society from such anti-socials and punish such lawbreakers accordingly. Students can take criminology assignment help from our experts as they refer to the different definitions and outlooks given by famous philosophers on criminology. Like Salmond has pointed out the difference between the lawful and unlawful acts. According to him, any act done which is permissible by law is called a lawful act whereas any act done which is prohibited under the law of the land for the time being in force is referred to as unlawful and must be punished according to the law of that land (Markose, 2016). Through our criminology assignment help service, we will deal with the concept of crime, definition of criminology, its nature and scope, importance and the views of the different school of criminology.

Why Students Need Criminology Assignment Help?

Myassignmenthelp.com Assists Students in all Kinds of Law AssignmentsCriminology is a scientific approach towards the study of crimes. Different philosophers put their views in their own way making the topic too vast. To compile all their views we need to refer to criminology assignment help service. As the study of criminology is a combination of social, environmental, economical and psychological aspects, it is tough to cover and analyze all the aspects to conclude a final criminology assignment. Thus, we research all these aspects thoroughly and try to provide the students and the researchers with online criminology assignment help. In the criminology assignment help, we focus on providing a comprehensive assessment on criminology including all its aspects. We include all the definitions and the views of different philosophers of criminology for the better perceptive of the topic. Our criminology assignment writing service explores all the ends of the topic before helping the students to score good grade. The languages used are simple enough for better understanding. Thus, our criminology assignment writing service helps the students in their assignment at their hour of need.

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Understanding the Concept of Crime

Students availing criminology assignment writing service primarily need to understand the concept of crime. Our experts in the following sections will help you understand the concept of crime and its allied chapters.

The infringement of the standard and the cherished norms of the society are termed as a crime. An individual who fails to follow such norms is called anti-socials. According to Blackstone, crime is an act done or omitted which is in violation with the public law (BEIRNE, 2013). Stephen, who edited the definition of Blackstone, said that crime is a violation of a right with evil tendencies against the community at a large. Another philosopher Sutherland described the crime as a symptom of social disorganization. Halsbury explained crime an unlawful act against the public order and such unlawful act must be subjected to punishment (Mansley, 2014). Keeton defined crime as an undesirable act which could be conveniently corrected by the State by inflicting a penalty on the offender or any remedy at the discretion of the aggrieved party (Keeton, 2015). Thus, after examining the definitions, we find that crime has three fundamental characteristics -

It is a harm caused to the society from any unlawful or anti-social acts of individual or individuals.

The State is supposed to maintain and supervise the law and order of such state by inflicting punishment on such wrongdoer. The State must take preventive measures from the commission of crimes.

The rules that determine the guilt of the person must be in accordance with the law of the land for the time being in force. Halsbury definition has been considered the most appropriate and precise definition of crime as it has all the elements of certainty and the elements to determine the offenders and the violation of crime.

Prominently there are three kinds of crime. Predatory crime, inchoate crime and hate crime.

• Predatory crime is conspicuous in nature in which the whole society reacts at the exploitation of the victim. Few examples of predatory crimes are dacoity, theft, extortion, kidnap and others.

• Incohate crimes are those which are committed to giving effect to some other crime such as criminal conspiracy, abetment of murder, attempt to grievous hurt and others.

• Hate crime is a different concept of crime in which the victims are not individuals but a community at a large. A peculiar characteristic of hate crime is the crime committed without any motivation. It is generally oriented by race, religion, gender and other ethics. In other words, hate crimes are committed against the vulnerable or the racial or minority religious groups of people. 

Apart from these crimes, there are certain crimes in which there is no direct victim. These kinds of crimes are called victimless crimes. They do not have any direct effect on the other people even then the offenders are punished under the law for committing such acts, as those acts are considered illegal as they are contrary to the moral and economic interest of the society. In UK, drunkenness in the public place, bestiality, selling prohibited articles such as drugs are punishable by law. 

With the advent of the study of criminology, efforts were made to classify crimes and criminals so that a rational standard could be reached for categorizing different punishment for the different categories of offenders or crimes. 

Under English Law, crimes have been broadly classified into two categories - felonies and misdemeanours (Stephen, 2014).

• Felonies crimes are crimes of serious nature, which are punishable with imprisonment for life or with the death sentence.

• Misdemeanours crimes are less serious in nature, which is punishable by confinement in prisons for comparatively less period or with fines or both.

Later, three additional classifications were made

A crime against property,

A crime against a person, and

A crime against State.

In the USA, crime has been categorized under 29 heads ranging from murder to runaway juveniles and narcotics.

Definition of Criminology

Now let us discuss the definition of criminology. The term criminology is the combination of two words. Crimen is a Latin word, and logia is a Greek word. Etymologically the term criminology means the scientific study of nature, scope, extent, causes, and control of the criminal behaviour of the individuals in a community.

According to Donald Taft, Criminology is the scientific analysis and observation of crime and criminals, and Penology is the study of punishment and the treatment of the offenders. He said the concept of penology is an early concept than criminology as earlier the State emphasized on the punishment and the treatment of the offenders rather than the scientific approach towards the causation of crime (Zainoddin, 2015).

Sutherland came up with a comprehensive definition where he defined criminology as the body of knowledge of delinquency and defined crime as a social phenomenon. He included the process of making law and breaking law within the concept of criminology. He described criminology as the body of verified principles and other knowledge related to the crime, reaction to crime and the process of law (Kautt & Pease, 2013).

As stated by Coleman and Norris, criminology is the analysis of nature, perpetrators, and causes of crimes and includes formulation and the enforcement of criminal laws and evaluation of the ways in which crimes can be controlled in the society (Coleman & Norris, 2013).

Nature and Scope of Criminology

We essentially need to focus on the nature and scope of criminology in the criminology assignment. Enrico Ferri observed that most of the developing countries actively engage in safeguarding the interest of the community from crimes and criminals by adopting an effective criminal policy (Taylor et al., 2013). The success of Social Defence theory which aims at eliminating crimes from the community depends upon the efficient administration of the criminal law in that country.

The criminologists are aiming to provide a uniform penal system for all the countries and the proper administration of prisons, reformative institutions, courts and police for the minimization of the instances of crime. For the effective control of the causation of crime, the factors that give rise to crimes or the factors that influence the minds of the offenders to commit the crime must be taken into consideration (Shute 2014).

In criminology assignment writing service, the centre of attention is the different aspects of crimes and the different measures to treat the criminals. This also includes the overall study for the reformation of the penal system ranging from the parol and probation systems to indeterminate sentence, open prisons and the other reformative institutions. If a criminal is adequately reformed and is assisted in his rehabilitation, then his chances of repeating a crime diminish and therefore he may no longer be a threat to the society. Thus, criminology aims towards the development of the society as a whole. 

The modern criminologists have agreed Criminology is the scientific approach towards crime and criminals in which the effects of criminality can be effectively controlled by the proper administration of criminal justice. The criminals must be reformed and treated individually to suppress the instances of criminality.

Ceasare Lombroso pointed out that the criminals were physically inferior and different from those of the normal people. This theory threw light on the concept of modern criminology. Sutherland pointed out that a person tends to acquire criminal characteristics when exposed to or comes in association with other criminals. This theory was termed as criminal sociology (Friedrichs, 2015). Professor Jerman explained the psychology of the criminals to commit crimes. They have mental and personality conflicts out of frustrations, depressions, anxiety and other functional deviations which give rise to criminal intention among them. However, to safeguard the society from the threats of anti-social acts both the concept of criminology and penology must go hand in hand. Few criminologists believe that the causes of criminality can be cured by the society and other sociological and environmental factors.

The study of criminology is based on two cardinal principles (Rovira, 2015).

Firstly, nullumcrimen sine lege which means no person will be charged with any criminal activities unless law expressly forbids such act and the individual had such criminal intention to perform it.

Secondly, nullapoena sine lege states that a person can be punished under legal system only if such act is punishable under the existing penal system of the land. The concept of criminology is the combined study of legal, scientific, social, biological as well psychological factors.

The sociologists examine the factors that contribute to the delinquent tendencies in individuals. There are biological factors that contribute to the delinquent tendencies in an individual. This theory was called the will theory, which was advocated by Beccaria. He argued that certain individuals are born criminals, and they are normally the incorrigible ones and must be kept away from the society. Every individual is the master of his free will and such incorrigible individuals resorts to criminal activities out of their free will and intelligence (Taylor et al., 2013).

However, Lombroso and Tarde challenged this theory and argued that no person is a born criminal. Every individual is a biological creature who tries to survive in the community by adjusting himself to the environment. Thus, when he fails to adjust himself in the community or the circumstances makes it difficult for him to survive then he resorts to criminal activities as the ultimate option left before him and not out of his choice. He is rather forced by the circumstances to step into criminality (Thornberry, 2012).

Thus, the environment where a person resides plays an important role in the causation of crime. Prof. Sutherland commented that the industrialization has accelerated the growth of crime due to overpopulation, the disintegration of joint families, increase in women employment and advancement of technologies, which has loosened the parental control as well as emotional ties (John-Stevas, 2016). The liberal legislation for divorce has increased sexual offenses. The urge for political powers has increased political crimes extremely. Thus, the study of criminology is not confined to the behavioural activities of the criminals, but it includes the study of crimes, the causes of crimes and necessary measures to fight back and control crimes. Thus, the modern criminologists have a rather realistic and scientific approach towards crimes and criminals. They treat crimes as a social phenomenon and analyses the punishments as either treatment or preventive measures as its ultimate object.

Importance of Criminology

The recent study of criminology aims to study and analyze each case of crimes and suggests methods to instil the feelings of mutual respect, confidence, and co-operation among the criminals. The modern penological reforms and liberal legislation of punishments have afforded for the successful rehabilitation of the offenders in the society. The intense aftercare programs and the introduction of the parole and probation systems in the modern penology have brought significant success in the reformation of the offenders as law-abiding citizens. In our criminology assignment writing service, the following are the other important achievements of the modern criminology-

The study of criminology is based on the assumption that no person is a born criminal. If an offender is given adequate chances for reformation, then he can turn into a law abiding citizen. Criminology focuses on the reformation of the criminals individually and does not apply general rules or assumption.

The study of criminology includes the police, judges, jurors, detectives, attorneys, lawyers, psychologists, psychiatrists and sociologists for their scientific research and knowledge so that a perfect criminal justice system can be implemented.

Criminology aims at the social solidarity. Its ultimate objective is to attain social harmony and crime-free society.

With the development of the technologies complexity in the life of the individuals have also increased. There is an increase in crime rates such as white-collar crimes, theft, cyber crimes, smuggling, cheating and much more. Therefore, to find the solutions systematic study and approaches were needed. Criminology has succeeded to work on the strategies to meet the new challenges to protecting the society from the commissions of crimes and the development of the administration of the criminal systems according to the needs of the modern society (Bonger, 2015).

Objectives of Criminology

The central objective of the study of criminology is the systematic study of law making, law breaking and reaction to the law breaking to analyze the crime control measures. It focuses on the factors that give rise to criminal behaviour among the individuals and the measures that can be taken for the effective control of such crimes. While analyzing the concept of crime and criminals, it takes into account the various theories and findings of the jurists, psychologists, socialists, psychiatrists, economists and biologists to reach at an effective solution or administration of criminal justice to curb out criminality within the individuals (Deflem, 2015).

Conclusion

Thus, the criminology assignment help can be concluded by saying that the punishment must suit crime and the offender and not vice-versa. The punishment awarded must be based on the gravity of the crime. The sentencing procedure must emphasize on the humanist principle. The aim of the penal system must be to prevent the instances of crimes in the society. However, it must effectively establish the core of deterrence so that the offenders are deterred from committing crimes as well as it acts as deterrence for the other individuals to commit crimes. Nevertheless, it must be chosen carefully so that it does not undermine the true spirit of humanity as harsh and brutal punishments kill the soul of the offenders, and they might turn into atrocious and incorrigible ones. Thus, reformative steps must always be ensured for the correction, and the reformation of the offenders and adequate steps must be taken for their rehabilitation in the society as law-abiding citizens. The main purpose should be to make the offender realize the seriousness of the crime committed by him, which is not only detrimental to the society of which he is a part but also for his own future. The study of criminology aims at the systematic implementation of these ideologies to eliminate crime from the society as far as practicable by examining its various causes and possibilities and meeting them systematically.

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Cheryl Maxson, Department Chair
2340 Social Ecology II
949-824-5575
http://cls.soceco.uci.edu/

Overview

The Department of Criminology, Law and Society focuses on the problem of crime and on understanding the social, cultural, political, and economic forces that interact with the law. Basic courses present overviews of American legal systems with particular emphasis on criminal and juvenile justice, forms of criminal behavior, the role of law in understanding social and psychological phenomena, and the applications of sociological theory in understanding law and legal systems. Subsequent course work provides a deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of crime, criminal justice policy, and socio-legal theory, including how legal institutions can both address problems of inequality and exacerbate those problems.

Students are provided with opportunities to become acquainted with the varieties of behavior that society chooses to control or regulate, the methods and institutions used to achieve that control or regulation, and the approaches aimed specifically at altering behavior deemed unacceptable. In addition, there is provision for students to use their increasing knowledge of the law, its procedures, and institutions to enhance their understanding of the social sciences.

The course of study provides excellent preparation for law school and for graduate study in sociology, criminology, and criminal justice. Careers for students who terminate their University education at the baccalaureate level may be developed through placements in criminal justice and regulatory agencies, in organizations determining public policy, and in programs that deliver services to people who have difficulties with some aspect of the legal system.

Field study placements are available in police departments, public defenders’ offices, probation and parole agencies, the Orange County District Attorney’s Office, the State juvenile detention system, the Orange County Victim/Witness Assistance Program, juvenile shelters, legislative offices, and in private legal firms.

Undergraduate Program

Requirements for the B.A. in Criminology, Law and Society

Requirements for the Minor in Criminology, Law and Society

Minor Requirements

Eight courses (32 units) as specified below:

CRM/LAW C7Introduction to Criminology, Law and Society
CRM/LAW C10Fundamentals of Criminology, Law and Society

NOTE: SOCECOL 198 and SOCECOL 199 may not be applied toward the minor.


Graduate Program

General information about the School of Social Ecology’s graduate programs, including admission requirements, career opportunities, and Ph.D. program milestones can be found in the School of Social Ecology Graduate section of the Catalogue. Specific information about the Department of Criminology, Law and Society’s graduate program appears below.

Graduate Emphasis in Race and Justice Studies

Students from any UCI state-supported graduate or professional program, including J.D., Master's, and M.F.A. students, are eligible to apply to the Emphasis in Race and Justice Studies, housed in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society. The Emphasis in Race and Justice Studies is comprised of three interconnected components that promote inclusive excellence: 1) A first-year mentorship proseminar; 2) Interdisciplinary coursework and writing that emphasizes cross-departmental interests and perspectives on critical studies of race, crime, and law; 3) Engagement with diverse audiences through traditional and innovative forms of research presentation.

Students may apply for admission into the emphasis upon completion of the first-year mentorship of the proseminar. Admitted students who satisfactorily complete the program requirements will be awarded a letter signed by the Director noting that the student has incorporated Race and Justice studies into their research and professional activities. Each student will be assigned a peer and faculty mentor to discuss the student's ongoing research and the value of inclusive excellence.

Requirements
  1. A first-year mentorship proseminar, consisting of nine workshops, discussions, and presentations offered over three quarters by selected faculty from across campus with experience negotiating policies and conducting research with high impact on fostering inclusive excellence. Students will receive a grade for this proseminar in the spring quarter.
  2. One Race and Justice Studies-approved course offered under the supervision of the emphasis.
  3. A writing seminar in which a paper developed through Race and Justice Studies coursework and programming will be workshopped and revised toward publication.
  4. A public presentation which translates the students Race and Justice Studies-influenced research for an interdisciplinary audience, which can include but is not limited to those found through professional associate conferences, small symposia and colloquia, social media publications, community-based collaborations, program and policy consultations, and artistic or alternative media formats.
Admission

The following is needed to apply for admission

  1. Satisfactory completion of the first-year mentorship proseminar.
  2. A statement of interest.
  3. An unofficial transcript.
  4. One faculty reference letter that speaks to the student's capabilities.
  5. Endorsement of the student's application by the student's advisor. The student's advisor may provide the reference letter. The deadline for this application is week 10 of the spring quarter of the student's first year of graduate study.
Petition for Formal Letter of Completion

A transcript showing satisfactory completion of coursework, a writing seminar paper, and a one-page report of public presentation is required for the petition for a formal letter of completion. The deadline for this petition is week 10 of the spring quarter of the student's third year of graduate study.

For students admitted to graduate study before fall 2016, prerequisites must be fulfilled between fall 2016 and spring 2019 and requirements must be fulfilled between fall 2016 and spring 2021. Upon approval by the Director, students may use prior coursework to satisfy one of the requirements of the Emphasis.

M.A.S. in Criminology, Law and Society

The Master of Advanced Study (M.A.S.) in Criminology, Law and Society, the first online degree program at the University of California, prepares professionals for leadership positions in criminal justice and the legal professions. The curriculum emphasizes theoretical and practical applications central to crime and its control, social policy, and the law. In keeping with one of the main tenets of the School of Social Ecology, students approach topics from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Program Details

This program is ideally suited for professionals interested in obtaining positions in or currently working in the criminal justice or legal fields and who are seeking a graduate degree for career advancement. The program consists of 52 units of course work. Students can progress at their own pace, completing the degree in one year (four quarters) or over the course of two consecutive academic years (six quarters). Students may begin the program any quarter (fall, winter, spring, summer). An optional one-week in-residence introductory course is scheduled right before fall quarter. In lieu of a thesis, students are required to take a capstone course. In addition to the capstone course, students take two other required courses (CRM/LAW C214 and CRM/LAW C215) and choose from elective courses to fulfill the remaining 40 units. The M.A.S. is awarded upon completion of 13 courses (52 units).

Master of Legal and Forensic Psychology

The Master of Legal and Forensic Psychology is designed for professionals or recent graduates who wish to further their education and gain skills that will help them obtain careers in the field of legal and forensic psychology. Students will be immersed in an interdisciplinary field devoted to advancing scholarship, testing theories, and engaging in public service relevant to individuals’ participation and experiences in legal contexts.

For more information, visit the Psychology and Social Behavior Graduate tab.


Ph.D. in Criminology, Law and Society

The study of crime, institutional responses to illegal behavior, and the interaction of law and society are the foci of the doctoral program in Criminology, Law and Society. Students examine issues related to the etiology of crime, the process of changing criminal behavior, social regulation, the civil justice system, and the social and cultural context of law.

Students gain familiarity with a number of subjects including sentencing; crime rates; modes of modifying criminal behavior; police behavior; white collar and organized crime; policies against hate crimes; behavior of courts, juries, and regulatory agencies; environmental law; immigration lawmaking; Native American justice issues; and the interaction among law, culture, and identity. In general, students are introduced to the leading classical and contemporary issues in criminology, law and society and to ways of understanding them through interdisciplinary research. The program aims to develop theoretical sophistication and to prepare the graduate student for faculty positions at major universities; and for research and administrative work in institutions in the legal system, the criminal justice system, and related organizations.

Requirements

The following four core courses are required: Seminar in Social Ecology (SOCECOL 200), Research Methods (CRM/LAW C201), two quarters of graduate-level statistics: Data Analysis (SOCECOL 264A) and Data Analysis (SOCECOL 264B); and two additional approved graduate research methods or statistics courses. Students in the Criminology, Law and Society program additionally take four required courses: Criminology: Micro Approaches (CRM/LAW C228); Criminology: Macro Approaches (CRM/LAW C229); Law and Society I (CRM/LAW C239A); and Law and Society II (CRM/LAW C239B); and two elective courses in Criminology, Law and Society. These elective courses should be chosen according to a plan that best meets the needs of the individual student, as determined in consultation with the student's faculty advisor. They should satisfy the elective requirement with regularly scheduled courses (with rare exceptions). (NOTE: An initial faculty advisor for each new Criminology, Law and Society student is assigned by the Criminology, Law and Society Graduate Advisor. Students, however, are expected to choose their own faculty advisor during their first year of study based on research interests. Students must notify the Criminology, Law and Society Graduate Advisor and the Departmental Graduate Coordinator of any changes in advisors.

Students become involved in research activities from the earliest stages of their training and complete an independent, supervised research project during the second year of graduate study. Methods of research may include questionnaires and surveys, systematic field observation, computer simulation, legal analyses, and archival research.

Advancement and Completion

Students complete a written comprehensive examination during year three, which requires them to demonstrate mastery of major issues in criminology, and law and society. The normative time for advancement to candidacy is four years (three years for students who entered with a master’s degree). Students are required to advance to candidacy by the end of fall quarter of their fifth year of study, adjusted for any approved leaves of absence. The fourth and, possibly, fifth years of study are devoted to developing and defending a dissertation proposal and completing dissertation research. The normative time for completion of the Ph.D. is six years, and the maximum time permitted is seven years. (For students who have waived two required courses and the second-year project based upon master’s-level work completed at another institution, the time to degree is five years, with a maximum of six years.) All Ph.D. students in the Criminology, Law and Society program are required to pass a final oral defense of the dissertation. Opportunities for field placements in legal and criminal justice settings also are available.

Program in Law and Graduate Studies (J.D./Ph.D.)

Highly qualified students interested in combining the study of law and graduate qualifications in Criminology, Law and Society are invited to undertake concurrent degree study under the auspices of UC’s Irvine’s Program in Law and Graduate Studies (PLGS). Students in this program pursue a coordinated curriculum leading to a J.D. degree from the School of Law in conjunction with a Ph.D. degree in Criminology, Law and Society. Additional information is available from the PLGS Director’s office, 949-824-4158, or by email to plgs@law.uci.edu. A full description of the program, with links to all relevant application information, can be found at the School of Law Concurrent Degree Programs website.

Courses

CRM/LAW C7. Introduction to Criminology, Law and Society . 4 Units.

Introduces characteristics of the U.S. criminal justice system, including responses to crime, components of the system, and current challenges to the system. Examines structure and function of police and courts, criminal procedure, and sentencing and incarceration policies.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Urban Studies Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

(III)

CRM/LAW C10. Fundamentals of Criminology, Law and Society . 4 Units.

Introduces three interdisciplinary literatures: criminology, socio-legal studies, and justice studies. Focuses on theoretical and empirical work addressing law making, law breaking, and legal systems.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

(III)

CRM/LAW C40. Forms of Criminal Behavior. 4 Units.

Undergraduates are introduced to the subjects of crime and criminal behavior. Topics include "street" and "white-collar" crimes. Histories of the offenses, the types of people who commit the crimes, and society's reactions to the offenses are presented.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

(III)

CRM/LAW C100. Special Topics in Criminology, Law and Society. 4 Units.

Special topic courses are offered from time to time. Course content varies with interest of the instructor.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Repeatability: Unlimited as topics vary.

CRM/LAW C101. American Law. 4 Units.

Introduction to substantive and procedural law governing private dispute resolution, including common law (tort, property, contracts), lawsuits (civil procedure), and alternative dispute resolution; emphasis on the socio-legal ramifications of private disputes, particularly the modern tort system and tort reform movement.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C102. Introduction to the Comparative Study of Legal Cultures. 4 Units.

Traces the anthropological and comparative cultural study of law from the nineteenth century to the present; briefly surveys the diversity of recorded legal cultures and critically examines key concepts which have been used to describe and classify them.

Same as INTL ST 124A.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. SocEcol-Urban & Regional Plan Majors have first consideration for enrollment. International Studies Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C103. US Legal Thought. 4 Units.

Evolution of legal thought in socio-historical context from 19th century to present; emphasizes the rise and fall of legal classicism and modern socio-legal critiques, including the law and society movement, critical legal studies, feminist legal theory, and critical race studies.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C104. Sociology of Law. 4 Units.

Examines law creation and law enforcement in their social and political context. Discusses the major theories of law and the modern state, and presents case studies in order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these theoretical perspectives.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C105. Psychology and the Law. 4 Units.

Psychological assumptions of American legal system and mental health aspects of provision of criminal justice services. Civil commitment, insanity defense, competence to stand trial, jury selection, eye-witness identification. Use of police, courts, correctional institutions in prevention of behavior disorder.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7 or CRM/LAW C101

Same as PSY BEH 193E.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. SocEcol-Urban & Regional Plan Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C106. Crime and Public Policy. 4 Units.

Explores nature and dimensions of crime in America and uses and limits of various strategies to control it. Topics include growth of imprisonment, the problem of domestic violence, the death penalty, gun control, and the potential of crime prevention programs.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C107. Deviance. 4 Units.

Perspectives on deviance and criminality in behavior, institution, community, and myth. The suitability of contemporary theories of deviant behavior.

Same as SOCIOL 156, PSYCH 177D.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Sociology Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C108. Criminological Theory. 4 Units.

Explores the question of crime causation from a number of theoretical perspectives in the social sciences. Schools of thought examined include utilitarianism, positivism, human ecology, social structural approaches, social process (learning) theories, labeling, and radical-critical (political) perspectives.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C109. Juvenile Delinquency. 4 Units.

Patterns of delinquent behavior, theories that explain behavior, current research aimed at enhancing exploratory power. Attempts to prevent and control delinquency are put in historical perspective. Development of the current juvenile justice system and evolution of modern juvenile law.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Same as PSY BEH 193B.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. SocEcol-Urban & Regional Plan Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C110. Community Context of Crime. 4 Units.

Examines the social context of high-crime communities, with special emphasis on the problems of poverty, joblessness, economic inequality, and racial discrimination. Assesses debates on the causes of these problems, and on the most effective policies to combat them.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C111. Theories of Punishment. 4 Units.

Survey of the various schools of thought regarding formal punishment theory. The purposes of legal sanctions are examined, including those of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, and incapacitation. Considers problems in realizing formal goals of punishment in practice.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C112. Legal Sanctions and Social Control. 4 Units.

Examination of criminal sanctions as mechanisms of social control. Includes the nature, function, and organization of courts as sanction generating institutions, and problems associated with punishing white-collar and corporate illegalities.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C113. Gender and Social Control. 4 Units.

Examines the legal system's use of sex as an organizing characteristic, focusing particularly on sameness and difference feminism, and tracing the evolution of equal treatment of men and women in the areas of constitutional rights, employment, education, and military service.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C114. Miscarriages of Justice. 4 Units.

Systematically describes, explains, and analyzes the causes and consequences of the wrongful accusation, prosecution, incarceration, and sometimes even execution, of the innocent in the American criminal justice system.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C115. Prisons, Punishment, and Corrections. 4 Units.

A review of how the U.S. punishes and rehabilitates convicted law violators. The conflicts among the major purposes of sentencing—rehabilitation, deterrence, incapacitation—are discussed, as well as the effects of different sanctions on public safety, offender rehabilitation, and justice system costs.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C116. Race, Ethnicity, and Social Control. 4 Units.

Provides a historical and sociological survey of racial and ethnic group relations in contexts of crime control, emphasizing the roles of racial ideology, structural racism, and social movements in shaping these dynamic relations, and their significance to American liberal democracy.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Same as CHC/LAT 152A.

CRM/LAW C117. Imprisonment and Reentry. 4 Units.

Offers an overview of imprisonment and reentry in the contemporary United States. Examines the development of the prison in the United States and explores changes in its composition, structure, and purpose over time.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C118. Domestic Violence. 4 Units.

General perspectives about domestic violence and theoretical accounts about what causes such behavior.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C120. Law and Inequality. 4 Units.

Various aspects of the law as related to three specific areas of inequality: immigration and immigrants, race, and gender. The role of law as a tool of social reform and limitations of the legal system historically in resolving inequality issues.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C122. Constitutional Law. 4 Units.

Examines the First and Fourteenth Amendments, focusing on freedom of speech and religion, and the incorporation of the Bill of Rights. Topics include political, symbolic, offensive, and obscene speech, student speech rights, and the free exercise and disestablishment of religion.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Overlaps with POL SCI 174A.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C123. Family Law. 4 Units.

Examines legal issues surrounding marriage, cohabitation, divorce, child custody and support, adoption, and the rights of parents and children in the family context. The findings of social science research are used to illuminate the legal issues.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7 or CRM/LAW C101

Same as PSY BEH 193F.

Restriction: Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C125. Child Development, the Law, and Social Policy. 4 Units.

Examines the rights of children and adolescents in the U.S. and internationally; law and policy with regard to the family, government services, health care, education, juvenile justice and the labor market; and the connection between child development, law and policy.

Prerequisite: PSY BEH 9 or PSY BEH 11C or PSYCH 7A or PSYCH 9C. Recommended: PSY BEH 111D or PSY BEH 112D.

Same as PSY BEH 120D.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C126. Drugs, Crime, and Social Control. 4 Units.

Drug abuse in the U.S.; the psychopharmacology of various drugs; biological, psychological, and sociological explanations for drug abuse. Policy issues are discussed; students will develop and defend a set of strategies for limiting harm done by drugs and drug laws.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C127. Hate Crimes. 4 Units.

Examines the causes, manifestations, and consequences of hate crimes and the larger social context within which they occur. The politics and dynamics of intergroup violence born of bigotry and manifested as discrimination; social policy designed to control bias-motivated violence.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C128. Environmental Law and Policy . 4 Units.

Environmental law as a combination of traditional legal principles and newly created statutes, rules, and decisions applied to environmental protection. Investigates roles of courts, legislature, executive branch and administrative agencies, and private citizens attempting to regulate environmental quality.

Same as PP&D 133.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors only. Planning, Policy, and Design Majors only.

CRM/LAW C130. Seminar on Gangs. 4 Units.

An overview of gangs, including the nature and definition of gangs; types of gangs; diversity of membership; theoretical explanations; criminal behavior; drug use and sales; law enforcement responses; gangs in correctional institutions; intervention and prevention strategies; and public policy issues.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C131. Organized Crime and American Society. 4 Units.

Examination of the phenomenon of American organized crime from a sociological perspective. Explanation of methods by which organized crime is tolerated at various levels of society. Emphasis on ways in which "underworld" interests interact with legitimate economic and political institutions.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C132. Forensic Science, Law, and Society. 4 Units.

Examines use of "forensic science" to resolve issues arising in criminal cases including crime scene analysis, DNA testing, fingerprints, trace evidence comparisons, profiling, lie detectors, other forensic techniques; evaluation, statistical characterization, and legal admissibility of evidence; regulation of forensic laboratories.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C133. Homicide and Suicide. 4 Units.

Examines similarities and differences among homicide and suicide, two major causes of death.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C134. Victimless Crimes. 4 Units.

Examines major theoretical, empirical, and policy-oriented research related to the design, implementation, and analysis of government intervention, through the criminal sanction, in the spheres of vice and morality.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C136. Forensic Psychology: Advanced Seminar. 4 Units.

CRM/LAW C137. Criminal Procedure. 4 Units.

Examines the law governing arrests (with and without a warrant); police detention; search and seizure; interrogation; use of informers, eavesdropping, wiretapping; examination and identification of suspects. Pretrial motions such as speedy trial and discovery of evidence may be covered.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C139. Police and Change. 4 Units.

Organizational efforts to modify police conduct are addressed by focusing on the history of policing in the United States including training, education, and the contributions of women.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C140. Surveillance and Society. 4 Units.

Explores the development and deployment of surveillance technologies in contemporary society. The social and legal impact of surveillance technologies, in such areas as crime control, privacy, trust, community, democracy, and the war on terror.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors only.

CRM/LAW C142. White-Collar Crime. 4 Units.

Examines criminal activity in business and corporate enterprise, organizations, and the professions. Theories regarding the causes and control of white-collar and corporate crime are covered as well as the numerous definitions of these terms.

Same as SOCIOL 142.

Restriction: Sociology Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C144. Criminal Law. 4 Units.

Deals specifically with the substantive nature of criminal law and its historical development. Focuses on understanding the development of fundamental doctrinal principles upon which criminal law is based, including mens rea, actus reus, homicide, causation, group criminality, and exculpation.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C145. Government Crime. 4 Units.

Examines the legal, organizational, and political issues involved in the generation and control of government lawlessness. Readings present historical and theoretical perspectives in the abuse of government authority and the ability of the legal system to control such behavior.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C149. Violence in Society. 4 Units.

Current theory and research on aggression; anger and violence as problems in individual and social functioning. Process and functions of anger examined with regard to normal behavior and psychopathology. The determinants, prevalence, and implications of violence in society are analyzed.

Prerequisite: PSY BEH 9 or PSY BEH 11C or PSYCH 7A or PSYCH 9C

Same as PSY BEH 178S.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. SocEcol-Urban & Regional Plan Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C150. The Legal Profession. 4 Units.

Role of the legal profession in modern society, the diverse professional roles lawyers play, the American legal profession compared with that of other societies. "Litigation explosion," ethical problems, interactions between lawyers and other professionals, training and socialization of new lawyers.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C156. Cross-Cultural Research on Urban Gangs. 4 Units.

Taking an urban policy approach, examines the background and contemporary traditions of gangs in several ethnic groups including African-, Asian-, and Mexican-Americans. Cross-cultural exploration of the varied facets of gang life. The major social-control institutions affecting them.

Same as CHC/LAT 153.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. SocEcol-Urban & Regional Plan Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Chicano/Latino Studies Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

(VII)

CRM/LAW C157. Language in Law and Society. 4 Units.

Considers the role of language in legal practice and power. Particular attention is paid to linguistic and discourse analytic research that covers topics such as: trial talk, language crimes, law talk in cross-cultural perspectives, and linguistic evidence.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C160. Forensic Psychology . 4 Units.

Forensic psychology is the interface between clinical psychology and the law. Emphasizes clinically relevant legal topics (insanity defense; competency to stand trial) and includes critical thinking about issues that arise when psychologists are involved in legal proceedings.

Prerequisite: PSY BEH 9 or PSY BEH 11B or PSY BEH 11C

Same as PSY BEH 161C.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society M.A.S. students have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C162. Crime Hotspots. 4 Units.

Criminological theories of local public safety hazards or hotspots are introduced. Spatial statistics are developed for different types of hotspots. Hotspot policing theories are introduced and research on the effectiveness of policing strategies is reviewed.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C163. Ethics and Politics of Justice. 4 Units.

Theoretical perspective on how ethics and politics relate to criminal justice through an introduction to moral philosophy; consideration of specific theories of punishment and justice; and consideration of practical and empirical illustrations of the intersection of ethics, politics, and justice.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C164. Social Control of Delinquency. 4 Units.

Assumes familiarity with theories of delinquency, the juvenile justice system, and elements of juvenile law. Explores socio-historical origins and evolution of juvenile justice, current research and policy on delinquency prevention and treatment, and future directions of law, policy, and practice.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7. Recommended: CRM/LAW C109.
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Same as PSY BEH 193C.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C165. The Death Penalty. 4 Units.

Examines why the U.S. continues to have a death penalty when so many other countries have abandoned it. Arguments for and against the death penalty are covered.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7
Prerequisite or corequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C167. Crime Measurement. 4 Units.

The strengths and weaknesses of three crime measures (police reports, victim surveys, and offender self-reports) are illustrated through analyses of research articles. Common measurement problems are analyzed with a focus on reliability and validity.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C168. Extreme Punishment . 4 Units.

Explores the history and law of America’s Eighth Amendment prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment, examining the death penalty, long prison sentences, harsh confinement conditions, and other punishments. Students debate practical, legal, and moral arguments for and against these punishments.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C170. Federal Law Enforcement. 4 Units.

The peculiar legal, organizational concerns of the federal system of law enforcement and some of the crimes it is uniquely designed to address—white-collar crime, drug trafficking, racketeering, public corruption. Roles, responsibilities of the FBI, DEA, Customs, other policing agencies.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. SocEcol-Urban & Regional Plan Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C171. Latinos and the Law. 4 Units.

Examines a range of theoretical, empirical, and policy approaches to legal issues affecting the Latino population, with emphasis on California. Discusses topics concerning the purpose of law, the creation of law, and the enforcement of law.

Same as CHC/LAT 142.

(VII)

CRM/LAW C172. Culture Change and the Mexican People. 4 Units.

Reviews culture contact and colonization, innovation diffusion, acculturation, assimilation, culture conflict and marginality, modernization, urbanization, legal transformations. Mexico and the Southwestern U.S. are reviewed through several centuries to better appreciate the indigenous base of the Mexican people.

Same as CHC/LAT 155.

CRM/LAW C173. Maritime Piracy, Law and Society. 4 Units.

Explores the historical and contemporary images and reality of pirates and piracy since the 16th century across the globe through an analysis of primary sources, key historiographical and legal debates, and criminological theories.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C174. Immigration and Crime. 4 Units.

Examines immigration and crime in the global context, highlighting immigrants as criminals and victims; immigration and crime control; immigrants’ perceptions of the criminal justice system; public discourse and public perception on immigration and crime; and human rights issues.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C7

CRM/LAW C175. Issues in Policing. 4 Units.

Lectures and readings focus on the history and strategies of policing, measuring the quality of policing, and police misconduct. Strategies for enhancing the quality of policing for controlling misconduct are covered.

CRM/LAW C176. Classics in Crime Cinema. 4 Units.

A multidimensional understanding of crime films and how they shape public thinking about crime and criminals.

Restriction: CRM/LAW C176 and CRM/LAW C20 may not be taken for credit.

CRM/LAW C177. Eyewitness Testimony. 4 Units.

Faulty eyewitness testimony is a major cause of wrongful convictions. Covers the fast-growing topic of eyewitness testimony and memory for real-world events, both how psychologists study eyewitness capacity, and how the legal system has dealt with eyewitness issues.

Prerequisite: SOCECOL 10

Same as PSY BEH 193G.

Restriction: Psychology and Social Behavior, Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment. Seniors only.

Concurrent with CRM/LAW C263.

CRM/LAW C178. Critical Race Theory. 4 Units.

Introduction to Critical Race Theory and key American cases on racial inequality. Using this literature, examines the possibilities and pitfalls of legal claims of race, gender, and sexuality discrimination in the age of colorblindness.

Same as AFAM 157.

Restriction: Upper-division students only.

CRM/LAW C179. Race and Incarceration. 4 Units.

Examines the racial politics of mass incarceration through historical, empirical, theoretical, and legal frameworks. Focuses on race, gender, and sexual differences to develop a critique on policing, incarceration, and other forms of punishment.

CRM/LAW C180. Power, Constructions of Deviance, and Social Control . 4 Units.

Examines the forms and limits of power in the construction of social deviants. Theories of state power are covered to understand the prison system as a contemporary driver of social inequality. The collateral consequences of mass incarceration are discussed.

Restriction: Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. SocEcol-Urban & Regional Plan Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Psychology and Social Behavior Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C191. Law and Modernity. 4 Units.

The rise and spread of Enlightenment legal traditions, social contract theory, individual rights, ideologies of "liberty, equality, fraternity"; contradictions of liberal law, its understandings of "primitive" and "civilized"; pervasive myths of property, difference, race, and rights. Reading- and writing-intensive.

Same as ANTHRO 127A.

CRM/LAW C196. Research Seminar in Criminology, Law and Society. 4 Units.

Special topics research seminar. Content varies with interest of instructor. Capstone research opportunity with Criminology, Law and Society faculty members.

Repeatability: Unlimited as topics vary.

Restriction: Upper-division students only. Anthropology Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Criminology, Law and Society Majors have first consideration for enrollment. Social Ecology Majors have first consideration for enrollment.

CRM/LAW C201. Research Methods. 4 Units.

An introduction to techniques of inductive methodologies, including qualitative interviewing and participant observation, and deductive methodologies, including survey research and experimental and quasi-experimental design. Provides a sound overview of research methodology with tools to pursue specific methods in greater depth.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C207. Land Use Law. 4 Units.

Investigates legal and institutional frameworks for development control. Review of constitutional issues implicated in land-use regulation. Traces development control historically and analyzes contemporary approaches to land-use control which reflect environmental and economic development concerns.

Same as PP&D 207.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C210. Introduction to Criminology, Law and Society. 4 Units.

Familiarizes students with the interrelated fields of criminology, law and society studies, and criminal justice studies. Organized around three well-established interdisciplinary literatures: criminology, sociolegal studies, and criminal justice studies.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C211. Legal Institutions and Society. 4 Units.

Acquaints students with the institutions of U.S. legal system and its operations, as well as with the constitutional framework undergirding this system, and defines the relationship between U.S. citizens and government at a variety of levels.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C212. Police, Courts, and Corrections. 4 Units.

Focuses on basic policy issues in the administration of the criminal justice system. The key elements of the criminal justice system are police, courts, and corrections. Prepares students for continued study of these organizations.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C213. Crime and Social Deviance. 4 Units.

Examines the major social scientific perspectives on criminal and deviant behavior. Specific deviant and criminal activities are described and explained using established theoretical frameworks.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C214. Research Methods. 4 Units.

Structures research methodology, the approach to developing and evaluating knowledge of the sciences for use in criminal justice professional activities. Special emphasis on differentiating scientific approaches from pseudo-science.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C215. Applied Statistics. 4 Units.

Provides a basis for the use of fundamental statistical analysis techniques for solving public policy and management problems through a series of assignments, examinations, and online discussions and demonstrations.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C216. Public Policy, Crime, and Criminal Justice. 4 Units.

Increases understanding of crime, violence, and the criminal justice system. Assesses the state of knowledge on key policy issues of our time. Discusses the contribution of communities, schools, employment, drugs, guns, and alcohol to crime and violence.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C217. Leadership. 4 Units.

Introduces concepts, ideas, and theories about leadership and its operation. Explores leadership concepts through interviews with leaders from the community and fellow classmates.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C218. Social Problems, Law, and Policy. 4 Units.

Capstone course for M.A.S. program in Criminology, Law and Society. Students choose a social problem related to crime, criminal justice, and law; relate the problem to legal and social issues; and devise a plan of action to research the problem.

Restriction: Graduate students only. Criminology, Law and Society Majors only.

CRM/LAW C219. Hate Crime. 4 Units.

Examines the causes, manifestations, and consequences of hate crimes, as well as the larger social context within which they occur, are reacted to, and seem to be proliferating.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C221. Sentencing and Corrections. 4 Units.

Reviews U.S. attempts to punish and rehabilitate convicted law violators. Conflicts among major purposes of sentencing (rehabilitation, deterrence, incapacitation, and retribution) are discussed, as well as effects of different sanctions on public safety, offender rehabilitation, and justice system costs.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C224. Organizational Perspectives on the Legal System. 4 Units.

Familiarizes students with organization theory and research as ways to make sense of, navigate, and act on the legal system. Acquaints students with major frameworks in organization theory and their application to the system of legal organizations.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C227. Conflict Resolution: Theory and Methods. 4 Units.

Provide an understanding of the major alternatives to the traditional system for the administration of justice, expanding on some of the newer theories and methods in the field. Key research on social conflict and its resolution examined.

Repeatability: May be taken for credit 3 times.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C228. Criminology: Micro Approaches. 4 Units.

Introduces students to the dominant theories in modern criminology, their theoretical antecedents and extensions, major empirical tests and implications for programs, policy and practice, and focuses on micro-level, individual theories of crime causation. Formerly Criminology, Law and Society C233A.

CRM/LAW C229. Criminology: Macro Approaches. 4 Units.

Introduces students to the dominant theories in modern criminology, their theoretical antecedents and extensions, major empirical tests and implications for programs, policy and practices, and addresses macro-level theories of crime causation. Formerly Criminology, Law and Society C233B.

CRM/LAW C231. Crime and Gender . 4 Units.

Examines the legal, political, social, economic, and policy implications of making gender (primarily) and race (secondarily) the focus in the study of crime, criminal law, and the criminal justice system.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C232. Juvenile Delinquency. 4 Units.

Examines the major theoretical perspectives regarding the onset, persistence, and desistance of juvenile delinquency, and examines empirical evidence for each perspective.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C236. Gender and Power in Law and Society. 4 Units.

Focuses on questions of gender and sexuality in law and society studies. Drawing on a variety of theoretical frameworks, especially feminist legal theory, examines social processes and structures related to legal regulation, inequality, and social change.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C238. White-Collar Crime. 4 Units.

Examines the illegal behavior of individuals who commit crimes in the course of their employment. Special attention will be paid to ways in which power and organizational structure affect the behavior of the white-collar offenders.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C239A. Law and Society I. 4 Units.

Provides an introduction to the law and society field from its origins in social scientific, legal, and philosophical scholarship during the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early-twentieth centuries. Formerly Criminology, Law, and Society C239.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C239B. Law and Society II. 4 Units.

Building on Law and Society I, addresses contemporary issues in the field from mid-twentieth century to the present with emphasis on the degree to which the field's foundational assumptions are being challenged, refined, or confirmed through current research.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C239A

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C241. Race, Ethnicity, and Social Control. 4 Units.

Origins and organization of racialized social control, with emphasis on criminal justice. Racial politics of criminal/juvenile justice considered in comparative (historical and international) perspective. Exploration of theoretical and methodological issues for research on race, ethnicity, and social control.

Same as CHC/LAT 221.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C242. Crime Hotspots. 4 Units.

Focuses on the criminological theory of hotspots, beginning with the “when, where, and why” questions and ending with the practical policing strategies that have been developed to mitigate hotspot public safety hazards.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C248. Geographic Information Systems. 4 Units.

Prepares students to become proficient in the basic GIS functionality including visualization, data management, and spatial analysis.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C250. Preventing Errors of Justice. 4 Units.

Examines the types of errors that are made in the U.S. criminal justice system and how we might prevent these errors, including failures to convict guilty offenders as well as wrongful convictions of the innocent.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C252. Issues in Environmental Law and Policy. 4 Units.

Treatment of legal and policy strategies for promoting environmental protection and deterring environmental degradation within the context of other societal objectives. Topical approach with a focus on problems of special interest to criminologists and to environmental policy specialists.

Same as PP&D 252.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C255. Public Policy. 4 Units.

Explores different approaches to public policy analysis, the diverse conceptions of the goals and objectives that should be served by policy, and the appropriate role of the policy analyst. Policy consequences are traced to indirect and subtle incentives and disincentives.

Same as POL SCI 221A, PP&D 221.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C260A. Race and Justice Studies Proseminar .

A year-long proseminar conducted by a team of instructors specializing in race and justice studies. Conceived as a reading and peer mentor group focusing on intellectual and professional development. Required for students pursuing the Race and Justice Studies emphasis.

Grading Option: In progress only.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C260B. Race and Justice Studies Proseminar.

A year-long proseminar conducted by a team of instructors specializing in race and justice studies. Conceived as a reading and peer mentor group focusing on intellectual and professional development. Required for students pursuing the Race and Justice Studies emphasis.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C260A

Grading Option: In progress only.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C260C. Race and Justice Studies Proseminar. 4 Units.

A year-long proseminar conducted by a team of instructors specializing in race and justice studies. Conceived as a reading and peer mentor group focusing on intellectual and professional development. Required for students pursuing the Race and Justice Studies emphasis.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C260B

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C261. Race and Justice Studies Writing Seminar . 4 Units.

A required writing-intensive seminar conducted by an instructor affiliated with the Race and Justice Studies emphasis. Students with manuscripts on relevant topics will read and critique peer manuscripts, and revise manuscripts toward completion of articles, dissertation chapters, and other publications.

Prerequisite: CRM/LAW C260C

Same as CRM/LAW C261, CRM/LAW C261.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C262. Special Topics in Race and Justice Studies. 4 Units.

A seminar focused on special issues in race and justice studies.

Repeatability: Unlimited as topics vary.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C263. Eyewitness Testimony. 4 Units.

Examines the evidence that shows that faulty eyewitness memory is the major cause of wrongful convictions. Explores what the legal system thinks of eyewitness testimony and how the legal system has dealt with eyewitness issues.

Same as PSY BEH P263.

Restriction: Graduate students only.

CRM/LAW C265. Memory and the Law. 4 Units.

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