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... Chill, euphoria, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, muscle cramps, headache, unexplained weight loss / gain , nausea and vomiting, vomiting blood, bone pains, depression, gallstone (Mishra, 4 - 5). Steroids effect on Adolescents: Steroids may stop the growth of the bones of the adolescents by closing the growth plates of the bones so kids will end up shorter than what they should have been (Anabolic steroids, 3). Psychological effects Moreover, steroids have psychological effects starting with aggression; many steroid users reported feeling higher levels of aggression behavior. Some reported mood swings and psychotic episodes, or so-called road-range. Never the less, steroids users reported an addiction phenomenon since users became more dependent on steroids (Yesalis, 58 - 61).
In France a study made by Paris Monte Cristo drug treatment indicated that 18 % of the 5000 high-level athletes are drug dependent and this was a consequence of sports doping, and that out of 13 million registered athletes 10 % of them take performance enhancing substances. Eventually this will lead to 300, 000 addicted athletes (Racing Demons, 1). Athletes after they are forced to leave the athletic elite due to steroids penalties they suffer many psychological problems. They will feel lost and with a great depression since they moved from a glorified life style to the real world (Racing Demons, 2). Preventing and treating steroid use Obedience of the law Drug testing The use of anabolic steroids came to the international public attention after Ben Johnson, the 100 -meter sprinter, was stripped from his gold medal and that was in the summer Olympics in Seoul 1988. After he was considered the symbol of the athletic world and raised the name of his country, Canada, high; tests indicated that Johnson used steroids and cheated in the competition (Mishra, 1).
Drug testing can be through testing blood, hair, saliva, and the most important one is urine test. And after they are tested they are not allowed to eat or drink any thing as long as it is sealed by the committee (Yesalis, 77). The idea of drug testing was first implemented on racehorses in 1910 after finding alkaloids in the saliva (Yesalis, 72). In the 1960 real drug testing came into action because of the use of chromatograph gas that is used to identify doping agents resulting in their metabolism effect on urine. Dr. Arnold Beckett, member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) medical commission, was the first to work on drug testing and its procedures.
In 1963 the first list of the banned drugs was charted. After that drug testing officially started in 1968 Olympic winter games, but it was in a random and unorganized way (Yesalis, 74 - 75). While testing, doctors look for the main components of steroids since the body metabolizes them. So the current and the most accurate way of testing is through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The components that are looked for is testosterone, but the body by itself produces testosterone and this does not indicate that the person is taking steroids. As a result testosterone is measured according to another hormone that is Epitestosterone (T/E ratio).
Athletes are penalized if exceeded 6 / 1 ratio (Yesalis, 79 - 78). Drug testing is one of the ways to stop steroid using at schools, colleges, and Olympic and professional levels of sports. Drug testing indicates those who use banned drugs to increase performance and compete with those who use nothing, which is unfair. However, drug testing faces many barriers, one is that politics some times interfere to change some test results (Yesalis, 71), and another thing is that drug testing is too much costly, at least two million dollars are spent at each Olympic game testing (Yesalis, 103). And last but not least, some steroids last in the body for months, anther steroids for 36 hours, so if athletes who take steroids know the time when to be tested they just stop taking steroids for enough time just to clean their system (Yesalis, 84).
Federal and Committees Actions The IOC that was trying to control the use of the performance-enhancing drug took a great step after lunching its world anti-doping authority in the late 1999. This step was supported by enough money to make tests not necessary through competitions, and authorized the blood enhancing drug test. Sydney Olympics showed that authorities are no more turning a blind eye after preventing 35 Chinese from participating in the Olympics and lot of athletics were caught and stripped from their medals after showing positive steroids tests (Noble, 1). Steroids users face so many disciplinary actions by the law and government of sports. First of all, athletes who test positive in steroids they are banned from going on in competing in his sport for two or more years. Second steroids trafficking were all state governments prevent trading or possession for steroids and for illegal use.
Finally athletes who use steroids become so much aggressive and this cause them so many troubles with the law since they can not control their behavior, leading to illegal actions such as crimes and rapes (Yesalis, 101). Educational Approach Education plays a major role in controlling steroids. Many schools added steroids wakefulness to their educational programs explaining their real dangers (Yesalis, 87). Oregon Model of education against steroids carried by the Oregon health sciences university, Portland, says that neither scare tactics is a way to stop athletes from taking steroids, nor a lecture at the beginning of the sports season.
Their work emphasized more on the behavioral intent, body image, incentives toward drug use and arresting drug traders. The program did not only involve the athletes but also the parents, the teams and coaches so they will be able to create a healthy social sphere (Yesalis, 90). In addition, the ATLAS, Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids, prevention program approved that participants, relative to a control group, were less dragged to steroids and trying it since they know its side effects in addition to its benefits, as a result they know how to avoid it and concentrate more on their nutrition. The ATLAS program has fourteen sessions with three main concepts.
First, weight training skills. Second, nutrition information for sports. Last, anabolic steroids education, like that of Oregon (Yesalis, 91). Treatment programs Some times stopping steroids may cause major consequences, so the most important thing is to keep a bond with the athlete and provide him with proper education, counseling, and reassurance. For this reason the doctor treating the athlete must not be judgmental, he must be knowledgeable and understanding (Yesalis, 124). Anabolic steroids are considered to be addictive.
A person taking steroids become dependent, since it changes their physical appearance and increase the effort to achieve more. Some athletes reported: When faced with the syringe, even my own worst fears did not matter, I could not stop. 17 -inch arms were not enough, I want 20. And when I got to 20, I was sure that I would want 22, ... Major problem with steroids treatment is that it costs so much of money (Yesalis, 116). Depression symptoms caused from quitting steroids sometimes leads to suicide.
There are certain characteristics that show that a person is in need for help: First, retarded behavior associated with depressive disorder. Second, sudden change in moods such as euphoria, irritability, depression or anxiety. Third, slower and disorganized thinking. Fourth, Suicidal thoughts and last but not least, hallucinations (Yesalis, 121). Some patients experiencing uncontrolled aggression need anti-psychotic medication; others need hospitalization so they could have all the support needed. (Yesalis, 121 - 22). Interpretation In my opinion, I consider that athletes are misusing steroids.
The main reason behind establishing steroids was to prevent body tissues from breaking down, and to help the elderly in regulating their hormones and many others to help them fighting against HIV & AIDS. However, athletes adapted this invention for inappropriate purposes and to cheat and compete in an unfair way. Since, sport represents the finest in physical development and human striving and will, steroids use among athletes opposes this representation. Society still does not fully recognize the negative effects that steroids have on the health of athletes and the way sports are played. I believe that every one is responsible for preventing steroids use including athletes, coaches and parents. Steroids cause a lot of harm that we must be aware of.
First, an athlete may suffer physical and psychological harm because of steroids. Second, the use of steroids for no medical purposes is a violation of federal laws. Third, using anabolic steroids is cheating and violates the rules of virtually every sport. Finally, yet importantly, steroids contaminate sports because results are obtained by unnatural means. Some people defend steroids use by stating that they give users a tremendous physical advantage.
However, it is the price of that advantage that worries me. There are two important things to bear in mind about steroids. First, they are very powerful drugs that affect both mind and body. Second, when elite athletes take steroids to secretly enhance their physical sports performance they tarnish the purity of all sports competitions. Works Cited Anabolic steroids. ESPN.
com. Sep. 6 2000. Apr 19 2001. < web >> Far, Tom. Juicers: Scare tactics do not work.
ESPN. com. Dec. 14 2000. 20 Apr 2001. Sports and Steroids. Kirk, D. N. , & M.
P. Hartshorn. Steroid Reaction Mechanisms. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co. , 1968. Mishra, Raja.
Steroids and sports are a losing proposition. FDA Consumer. 25. 7. p 24. Sep 1991. Infotrac. Galegroup.
Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Sports and Steroids. Noble, Kate. When Winning Loses Out: This is the year that integrity will count for more than victory at any price. Time International. 157. 4. p. 70.
Jan 29 2001. Infotrac. Galegroup. Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001.
Sports and Drugs. Paterson, Ellen R. Steroids and Sports. RQ. 29. 1. p. 20 - 23. Fall 1989.
Infotrac. Galegroup. Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Steroids and Sports. Phillips, Andrew. The Olympic Drug Cloud: were these the shame games...
or the start of real crackdown on doping? Maclean's. p 52. Oct 9 2000. Infotrac. Galegroup.
Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Sports and Drugs. Racing Demons: Use of performance-enhancing drugs may grab sporting headlines, but the real tragedy is what happens later. Time International. 157. 10. p 50 +. Mar 12 2001.
Infotrac. Galegroup. Lebanese American University Library, Beirut. 18 Apr 2001. Sports and Drugs.
Reuters. Drugs as old as Olympic, as new as the Internet ESPN. com. Sep. 19 2000. 19 Apr 2001. < web > Ring hofer, Kevin R. , & Martha E. Harding. Coaches Guide to Drugs and Sports.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1996. The Psychological Effects of Using Steroids. Planet Papers. 20 Apr 2001. < web >> Yesalis, Charles E. , & Virginia S. Cowart. The Steroids Game: an experts inside look at anabolic steroid use in sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1998.
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Research essay sample on Anabolic Steroids Drug Testing
Is Tess in ‘Tess of the d'Urbervilles' portrayed as being responsible for her own demise? [pdf 40 KB]
Yours is a beautifully clear essay. You write very well, and your prose is delightful to read. You've also done your research and it shows. There is a remarkable lack of vagary about society or feminism in your piece, and you've picked canny quotes from your secondary sources that elucidate and situate your arguments.
You've also located some wonderfully specific quotations from your primary source to support your argument that Hardy's narrator sympathises with Tess. Some of your close readings are wonderfully astute, as when you point out that Tess implores Angel, rather than commanding him. Slightly less persuasive is your assertion that Tess is the victim of Alec's eyes; I suspect you might have found better quotations, descriptions, or incidents denouncing Alec's gaze.
You are clearly very good at pursuing and proving an argument. I encourage you to be a bit more experimental in your next essay; perhaps choose a less straightforward topic and see where it takes you.
Please see penciled notes throughout on shortening sentences and watching for comma splices (please look this term up in a style manual if it is unfamiliar).